Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ
Gerald N. Lund
(Selected Writings of Gerald N. Lund: Gospel Scholars Series, p.237-253)

From "An Exploration of the Process of Faith as Taught in the Book of Mormon," in The Second Annual Church Educational System Religious Educators' Symposium: A Symposium on the Book of Mormon (Provo: Brigham Young University Religious Studies, 1978), 74-80.

Even without the fourth Article of Faith, which lists "faith in the Lord Jesus Christ" as the first principle of the gospel, it would be obvious to anyone opening the standard works that faith is a pervasive, all-encompassing principle. The word itself and its cognate forms are found hundreds of times. Its importance in the plan of salvation could best be summarized by Paul's statement that "without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him" (Heb. 11:6). Joseph Smith, commenting on that verse, said, "If it should be asked-Why is it impossible to please God without faith? The answer would be-Because without faith it is impossible for men to be saved; and as God desires the salvation of men, he must, of course, desire that they should have faith; and he could not be pleased unless they had, or else he could be pleased with their destruction."1

Clearly, then, faith is at the center of all that we do and teach in the gospel of Jesus Christ. Unfortunately, however, in the Church we occasionally find some whose attitude seems to be that, since it is the first principle of the gospel, it is also a simple principle, easily comprehended and left behind as one moves on to more complicated and challenging areas of study. However, this is not the case. Elder Vaughn J. Featherstone has summed up, as well as any, the challenge of studying faith as a concept:

"What a great thing it is if we understand what faith is. What is faith? How does it work? Do you have total faith? When we come to a full and total understanding of faith, then I think we ought to move on to repentance. When we understand that totally, then we should move through the principles. But I doubt we will ever really get through an understanding and complete knowledge of faith in a life-time. I don't care how intellectual you are, or how long you study, I doubt you will ever come to an end of the study of faith, the first principle of the gospel. The gospel is so simple that a fool will not err therein, but it is so beautiful and so sophisticated that I believe the greatest intellectual can make a study of faith and never come to an end of understanding."2

Faith: A Principle of Power

If a typical Church group were to give a one-word synonym for faith, the usual answers would be belief, trust, assurance, hope, and so on. Joseph Smith's Lectures on Faith gives a different definition for faith, one that has profound implication for our understanding. In the first lecture, commenting on Heb. 11:3, the Prophet said:

"Faith is not only the principle of action, but of power also, in all intelligent beings, whether in heaven or on earth. Thus says the author of the epistle to the Hebrews (11:3):

"'Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.'

"By this we understand that the principle of power which existed in the bosom of God, by which the worlds were framed, was faith; and that it is by reason of this principle of power existing in the Deity, that all created things exist; so that all things in heaven, on earth, or under the earth exist by reason of faith as it existed in HIM.

"Had it not been for the principle of faith the worlds would never have been framed, neither would man have been formed of the dust. It is the principle by which Jehovah works, and through which he exercises power over all temporal as well as eternal things. Take this principle or attribute-for it is an attribute-from the Deity, and he would cease to exist.

"Who cannot see, that if God framed the worlds by faith, that it is by faith that he exercises power over them, and that faith is the principle of power? And if the principle of power, it must be so in man as well as in the Deity? This is the testimony of all the sacred writers, and the lesson which they have been endeavoring to teach to man."3

That faith is a principle of power is evident in scripture. As we look in the standard works and find examples of men with faith, we find in virtually every case demonstrations of tremendous and marvelous power. We read about Enoch, for example, speaking the word of the Lord, and the earth trembling and the mountains fleeing! (see Moses 7:13). We see Joshua saying, "Sun, stand thou still"; and the sun obeys! (see Josh. 10:12-14). Or we find Peter spying a lame man near a gate of the temple-a man with a congenital birth defect who had been unable to walk for the forty years of his life. Peter said simply, "In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth rise up and walk." The record states, "And he leaping up stood, and walked, and entered with them into the temple, walking, and leaping, and praising God" (Acts 3:1-10). Faith is the power by which God speaks, creating worlds, solar systems, and universes. So when we speak of faith, we speak of tremendous power, not only physical power, but even power that can save a man from temporal and spiritual death.

Requirements for Developing Faith

In the third lecture on faith, Joseph Smith described what is necessary for people to have faith sufficient to bring them salvation:

"Let us here observe, that three things are necessary in order that any rational and intelligent being may exercise faith in God unto life and salvation.

"First, the idea that he actually exists.

"Secondly, a correct idea of his character, perfections, and attributes.

"Thirdly, an actual knowledge that the course of life which he is pursuing is according to his will. For without an acquaintance with these three important facts, the faith of every rational being must be imperfect and unproductive; but with this understanding it can become perfect and fruitful, abounding in righteousness, unto the praise and glory of God the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ."4

Looking at these three requirements carefully, we can see that each of the three involves knowledge; that is, we have an idea in the first one, a correct idea in the second one, and anactual knowledge in the third one. If a sequence were designed depicting an individual's movement toward salvation, it would look something like this:

Faith Sequence

In other words, if we are to achieve salvation, we must have faith; and if we are to have faith, we must have knowledge. This is a crucial thing to know about faith and the means to develop it, and yet it raises a troubling question. If we say that knowledge is the requirement or prerequisite of faith, someone will invariably ask, But if knowledge leads to faith, how do you explain Alma 32, wherein Alma describes the process of faith leading to salvation as having faith first, which then leads us to a perfect knowledge?

After carefully rereading Alma 32 and studying the Lectures on Faith, I have come to some tentative conclusions about faith. Suppose, for instance, that faith in Jesus Christ is a process rather than simply a concept? Suppose that the same word is used by different prophets to describe different phases or stages of the process? Could that explain what seems to be a different use of the same term? And if that is true, can the process be described? Do the scriptures describe it? I believe that they do and that the best descriptions of that process are found within the Book of Mormon itself. In an attempt to describe this process, I have developed a paradigm, or model, of what the process of faith in Jesus Christ is.

Some words of caution need to be given, however, before we begin looking at the model itself. First, one danger of any model is that it tends to oversimplify. This is of value in one way, because the simplification helps us to conceptualize or grasp the relationships of a complex subject. But when we begin to apply the model closely to reality, we find that it may not hold up in all cases. Exceptions will exist that do not truly fit the model. The paradigm of faith included in this chapter is only to help people conceptualize a grand and complex subject. Second, Elder Featherstone's comment that the study of faith can be pursued without ever reaching the end of understanding suggests that the model presented here should be refined or adapted as an individual pursues a deeper understanding of faith. Third, the model is based heavily on three major sections in the Book of Mormon dealing with faith in Jesus Christ: Alma 32, Ether 12, and Moro. 7. Thus, understanding the paradigm is based in part upon a thorough study of those chapters.

The Process We Call Faith

One of the challenges in describing or discussing faith is the idea that faith is a process involving various stages of development. A prophet may use the word faith to speak of faith as a whole or to refer to any one of the different stages of the process. This presents a challenge in studying the scriptures, and sometimes even results in confusion. Joseph Smith, for example, said that faith is power; Alma said that faith is hope. Both, however, can be easily understood if we use the process model of faith.

The tendency for prophets to use one word--faith--to discuss different aspects of faith makes it difficult to delineate the different stages of the process. After some consideration, I decided that, rather than try to generate new terms--terms the prophets did not use--I would instead use the basic word with a number, thus describing the stages of the process as Faith 1, Faith 2, and so on. In addition, it seems to me that each stage of faith always contains three basic components: hope, action, and confirmation. Again, because these may differ somewhat in their nature, depending on which level of the process of faith a person is at, I have chosen to designate these with subscripts too: Hope 1, Hope 2; Action 1, Action 2; Confirmation 1, Confirmation 2; and so on.

To begin, let us examine Alma 32. I have concluded after studying the chapter that it describes the initial process of the development of faith in Jesus Christ, or, in terms of our nomenclature, the development of Faith 1. Remember that Alma was speaking to the Zoramites, or, more precisely, a group of Zoramites who had been expelled from the congregations of the Zoramite churches because of their poor, lower-class status. The Zoramites had apostatized from the Nephites-they worshiped idols and had developed a proud and perverted way of worshiping (see Alma 31:8-23, 31). In other words, Alma was not speaking to members of Christ's church in the sermon recorded in Alma 32. Rather, he was speaking to a group who had just begun the process of developing faith. This situation has some important implications for Alma's discussion of faith.

When Alma spoke to these Zoramite poor, he seemed to have used the terms faith and perfect knowledge in a peculiar sense; that is, in a sense different from the normal usage of the terms. He equated faith with a hope or desire to believe what is not known to be true. Notice what he said in verse twenty-one of Alma 32: "Now as I said concerning faith-faith is not to have a perfect knowledge of things; therefore if ye have faith ye hope for things which are not seen, which are true." Notice that he said, "If ye have faith ye hope." In other words, he seemed to be defining faith as a hope or desire that the things he was telling them were true. He also limited his definition of faith to hoping for things that are actually true. That suggests that hoping for things that are untrue will not bring the results he described in the rest of the sermon.

Alma's use of the term perfect knowledge is revealed in verses eighteen to thirty-four. In verse eighteen he said, "If a man knoweth a thing he hath no cause to believe, for he knoweth it." In verse thirty-three, after telling the Zoramites how to experiment with the word, which he compared to a seed, he said that, when they begin to see it "swell" and "grow" in them, they must know that the seed is good. In other words, they didn't have to hope or desire to believe that it is good; they would know that it was good. Therefore he said in verse thirty-four, "Your knowledge is perfect in that thing." Obviously, he was not talking about perfect knowledge in any grand or universal sense; and he made that clear in verses thirty-five and thirty-six by saying that, once they had tasted this light, their knowledge was not perfect in an ultimate sense.

Notice also in Alma 32 that Alma gave two prerequisites for the development of faith (the very first level of faith). These prerequisites are, first, humility (see v. 16) and, second, hearing the word (see v. 23). If we are not willing to humble ourselves and make the experiment, we can never develop faith. Even more fundamental, if we do not have the word of the Lord on which to experiment, if we do not have knowledge or information on which to begin to believe, we cannot have faith. (For additional references, see also Moro. 7:24-25; Rom. 10:13-17.)

Level One: Faith or Hope

At each stage of faith, we must move through three components to reach the next level. Note the diagram [below] of the first level of faith, or Faith 1. The three components are shown in their proper relationship to one another.

Faith 1

Hope 1, or the initial level of hope, would be the beginning step for the whole process. This level of hope is really nothing more than the desire or wish that something be true. It is as though we are motivated to say, "I want to know if this is true." Notice in verse twenty-seven, Alma said, "Even if ye can no more than desire to believe" (emphasis added). If we have Hope 1, then we will be motivated to Action 1, which is the second step of the process, the second component of faith. At the first level of faith, this action may be no more than a willingness to try to ascertain whether the word we have heard is true.

Moroni taught a valuable concept about this level of faith when he wrote, "I would show unto the world that faith is things which are hoped for and not seen" (Ether 12:6). This is essentially what Paul told us in Heb. 11:1. In this case, faith, or the ability to trust in something not seen, is quite clear. We cannot "see" that the word we have heard is true; that is, we do not have empirical proof (proof based upon observation or experience) of the truthfulness of the word. Therefore, we must act on faith: we must trust or hope for something to be, although it is not yet based on seen evidence.

Moroni continued the verse by writing, "Dispute not because ye see not, for ye receive no witness until after the trial of your faith." In every case, in every level of the development of faith, there must be a trial of faith. That is, we are tested to see whether we will act on the basis of the hope that is in us. We have to show that we are motivated to behave according to the truths the Lord has given us, before we have actual evidence that these things are true. Notice again what Alma told the Zoramite poor in Alma 32:27-28: "If ye will awake and arouse your faculties, even to an experiment upon my words, and exercise a particle of faith, yea, even if ye can no more than desire to believe, let this desire work in you, even until ye believe in a manner that ye can give place for a portion of my words. . . . If ye do not cast it [the word] out by your unbelief, . . . it will begin to swell within your breasts." Notice the verbs of action that he used: awake, arouse, exercise, desire, give place, not cast out. We must act on our desire (which desire I call Hope 1) to know if the word of the Lord is true. This initial level of action (Action 1) is basically one of will, one of deciding to try to find out if the word is true.

When we act by experimenting, awaking, exercising, and so on, we are led to the third component of faith, which is a confirmation of our hope. This initial level of the faith process would be called confirmation. Alma described this kind of evidence through feelings. Though this evidence is available only to the feelings, it is still empirical, or real, evidence. It may be difficult to put into words, but that doesn't lessen its reality. Notice how Alma described this evidence through one's feelings, "It will begin to swell within your breasts; . . . it beginneth to enlarge [the] soul; yea, it beginneth to enlighten [the] understanding, yea, it beginneth to be delicious" (v. 28).

Based on this real, though difficult to express evidence, we can say, as Alma did in verse thirty-three, "Ye must needs know that the seed is good" (emphasis added). In other words, we now have knowledge based on empirical evidence. Alma called this "perfect knowledge." That perfect knowledge gained through the trial of faith and confirmed by real evidence then does away with the faith described by Alma (to the nonfaithful Zoramites), the faith that is a hope or desire to believe what is not known to be true. Since we have come to know that the word is good, we no longer need to hope that it is good. Perfect knowledge takes away, or swallows up, faith, as Alma used the term.

When we move through the trial of faith (hope that moves us to act, which leads to a confirmation of that hope), we can say that we have achieved the first stage of faith. These preliminary steps are at an investigator level: we are investigating whether something is true. Alma's description and discussion fit the Zoramite needs perfectly. Typically, we would hypothesize that when a person begins the process of developing and entering into Faith 1, described so perfectly by Alma, he will likely get confirmation quite rapidly. This is an experience missionaries see countless times. When people truly humble themselves upon hearing the word of God and experiment upon that word (for instance, seeking to know through prayer whether something is true), very often the confirmation, the swelling, the feeling of truthfulness, the almost indescribable sensation that this is good come quickly, and they know that the word of the Lord is a good seed.

Level Two: Faith or Knowledge

When we have achieved Faith 1, have we achieved all that there is to have? Obviously not. Alma himself encouraged the people to continue on once they had received this "perfect knowledge." He told them to nourish the seed that was starting to grow until it became a great tree providing them with the fruit of eternal life (see vv. 25-43). In other words, once we have Faith 1, we can move on to the next level of the process in developing faith. The second stage of faith (Faith 2), diagrammed [below], is a level of faith entailing belief and knowledge.

Faith 2

Once again there are the three components: Hope 2, Action 2, and Confirmation 2. In the second level of hope, we have more than a desire to know if something is true. Now our attitude could be described not as "I want to know if this is true," but as "I desire this truth." As Moroni stated it, we may "with surety hope for a better world" (Ether 12:4). This is a major step upward from the Faith 1 level. In his sermon to the Zoramites, Alma did not discuss in detail this second level of faith (probably because of the nature of his audience). But others did. Besides Moroni's statement in Ether 12:4 above, we find statements like these from Mormon: You "shall have hope through the atonement of Christ . . . to be raised unto life eternal" (Moro. 7:41) or "Without faith [could this be Faith 1?] there cannot be any hope" (Moro. 7:42).

When we move into this second level of hope (Hope 2), where we begin to sincerely believe in the things we have heard rather than simply desiring to believe, we will then be motivated to action again. However, this action (Action 2) is on a higher level than that of Faith 1 and could be defined as a willingness to live the truths we believe to be true. Whereas we had previously acted to find out if the Lord's word was true, now we act to incorporate into our lives the truths we have learned. Here again we find in operation the principle in Ether 12:6: we must have our faith tried; we must prove by our actions that the hope in us truly is sincere and serious. Notice what Moroni said about this hope: it makes "an anchor to the souls of men, which would make them sure and steadfast, always abounding in good works" (Ether 12:4). In his letter on faith, hope, and charity, Mormon said, "They who have faith in him will cleave unto every good thing" (Moro. 7:28). This seems to be what Alma meant when he said, "If ye nourish [the word] with much care it will get root" (Alma 32:37).

When we operate at the Action 2 level, we again undergo the trial of faith. We must show that we are willing to trust in things not seen. When we do so, we receive confirmation (Confirmation 2), specifically evidence on a behavioral level. This empirical evidence is more outward than that received in Confirmation 1, where the evidence consisted mostly of inner feelings (although Confirmation 2 still includes many feelings). Such evidence is easier to identify and to put into words. It would involve statements such as "Yes, my prayer was answered" or "I can see that this principle works in my life." Such confirmation leads us to say not "I believe . . ." but "I know the gospel is true." The word has grown to the point where we can actually begin to taste the fruits of it in our lives (see Alma 32:42). In Moro. 7:25 we read, "Thus by faith, they did lay hold upon every good thing."

Now that we have examined the first two levels of faith, we begin to appreciate the profound implications of the discussion of faith and works James the apostle gave. If we do not have works joined to our faith, then our faith is dead, "being alone" (see James 2:17). If we have the hope or desire that something is true (Hope 1) but refuse to act on that hope, we will receive no confirmation, and our faith, even at this early stage, will be dead. The same is true in level two. Once we believe that something is true but refuse to live the truth, then we have faith without works, and our faith dies. We will receive no confirmation. The confirmation comes only after the trial of faith. But in this second level, our trial is not on an investigator level; we are tried on a higher level involving conversion, or testimony.

Level Three: Faith or Power

Now we are prepared to look at the next level of faith, which brings us to faith as Joseph Smith defined it. We could say that Faith 3, diagrammed [below], is the power level of faith. Once again we are describing a major step upward from the previous level, and once again we find all three components operating as in the previous levels.

Faith 3

Hope 1 is to hope that something is true, and Hope 2 is to believe that it is true. After having gone through the process of Faith 2, however, we have confirmation and knowledge that the things we cannot see are indeed true. This makes a new level of hope possible. Hope 3, the third level of hope, could be described as a knowledge and assurance of things not seen. At this level, our attitude is reflected by this statement: I have the truth, and I desire to use it to become like God. This is, I believe, what Moroni meant by the phrase "a more excellent hope" (Ether 12:32). This desire seems to also describe what Nephi meant by "a perfect brightness of hope" (2 Ne. 31:20). When our hope is this strong, when we truly have knowledge and assurance of unseen things, we move into more committed action (Action 3). This higher level of action could be described as a willingness to do whatever God requires of a person. This, again, is a great trial of faith. Action 3 may involve a wide range of behaviors, including working on a Church welfare project or taking care of a sick neighbor's children. It may be something as trying and challenging as God's request to Abraham that he sacrifice his only son.

In our development of faith, if we have reached this point of hope or knowledge but refuse to act accordingly, then, as James said, "as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also" (James 2:26). We have failed the trial of faith and will receive no confirmation of our hope. Notice the quotation by Joseph Smith from the Lectures on Faith included in the diagram. He said that only a willingness to sacrifice whatever God requires brings the knowledge that allows us to obtain the faith required for salvation.5

If we operate at this level of action, we would expect that confirmation of this hope would be forthcoming, and such is the case. We could describe this level of confirmation (Confirmation 3) as evidence on many levels of experience. It can not only involve experiences of inner feelings and knowledge, but also include experiences available to the senses, such as visions, visitations of angels, the demonstration of power in miracles, speaking in tongues, and the like. These may still be hard to express in words (in the sense that words are inadequate to describe them), but they are irrefutable kinds of evidence, demonstrations that the honest person cannot deny.

Notice the promises cited under the Confirmation 3 level in the diagram. This is what the Lord meant when he said, "These signs shall follow them that believe" (Mark 16:17). This power level of faith also helps us to better understand what the Lord meant when he said: "Faith cometh not by signs, but signs follow those that believe. Yea, signs come by faith, not by the will of men, nor as they please, but by the will of God. Yea, signs come by faith, unto mighty works, for without faith no man pleaseth God" (D&C 63:9-11).

I believe that understanding the process of Faith 3 also gives us added insight as to why those who seek signs to bolster faith are called "a wicked and adulterous generation" (Matt. 16:4). A person who wants to build his faith only on the basis of confirmation or evidence, without living the principles, seeks to circumvent the trial of faith that Moroni described. That is, he wants to have confirmation without paying the price of hope and action. And this "adulterates" or pollutes the proper relationship in the developmental process of faith. Satan seems to understand the significance of this and often prompts his servants to demand a sign, to demand faith without paying any price (see, for example, Jacob 7:13; Alma 30:43; Ether 12:5).

Level Four: Faith or Perfection

In level three of faith, or the power level, we looked to the faith shown by the people in the scriptures whom we typically characterize as having great faith. Many people might think of this as being the highest level of faith, but I feel that there is a fourth level of faith, which could be described as the perfection level.

Once again, this is a major step upward. We have to be a little more speculative as we describe this level of the process of faith because relatively few have achieved it; and those who have seem reticent (by direction of the Spirit) to talk about it in much detail. But I believe again that it involves our three components of hope, action, and confirmation, as diagrammed [below].

Faith 4

In level three, hope involved knowledge and assurance. How could one come to a higher level than that? I suggest that Hope 4 is the actual knowledge that one will become like God, and it can be characterized by the attitude, I desire to be as God is. Two scriptures come to mind: "The more sure word of prophecy means a man's knowing that he is sealed up unto eternal life" (D&C 131:5; emphasis added); and "If ye do these things, ye shall never fall" (2 Pet. 1:10; emphasis added), which is Peter's promise to those who were laboring to make their calling and election sure.

When someone has reached this level of faith in mortality, his calling and election is made sure, and he is told by the more sure word of prophecy that he will be exalted. Imagine the level of hope or desire that such a revelation would create in him. Such hope would lead him to the fourth or highest level of action (Action 4)-the level where his life becomes more and more godlike until he is made perfect and becomes worthy to become a god. Whether the phrase "trial of faith" adequately describes Action 4 is not important. What is important is to know that the person must still live at a level of action commensurate with the level of hope within him. When he does so, he will receive a level of confirmation also commensurate with his level of action. In the highest level of confirmation (Confirmation 4), a man receives the ultimate proof of the truths of the gospel-he is made a god!

As discussed at the beginning, the paradigm of the four levels of faith in Jesus Christ is inadequate to describe all the complexities of faith. Certainly it needs further clarification and refinement. But I have found it to be tremendously helpful as I think through what the prophets have said about faith. When Joseph Smith said faith is power, he was obviously speaking about a different level of faith than when Alma said to experiment upon his words so that faith could be swallowed up in perfect knowledge.

I also find it helpful to think of the three components-hope, action, and confirmation-at each level of faith, for I find the three principles operating in the lives of those who demonstrate faith. These principles also have relationship to repentance, baptism, and enduring to the end. Often we risk the danger of becoming sign seekers by talking of having one's calling and election made sure. As we talk about this important concept, we must clearly define the price to be paid so we do not end up testing God. Rather, we should operate according to the level of knowledge and hope that the Lord has granted us. Then we will receive a greater and greater confirmation until Jesus Christ makes us joint heirs with him, and we become gods. I firmly believe that this is the process that we must follow in our lives if we are to find that power. Joseph Smith said this:

"All the saints of whom we have account, in all the revelations of God which are extant, obtained the knowledge which they had of their acceptance in his sight through the sacrifice which they offered unto him; and through the knowledge thus obtained their faith became sufficiently strong to lay hold upon the promise of eternal life, and to endure as seeing him who is invisible; and were enabled, through faith, to combat the powers of darkness, contend against the wiles of the adversary, overcome the world, and obtain the end of their faith, even the salvation of their souls."6

Until now, we have not said anything about charity, though faith, hope, and charity are clearly interwoven, interdependent concepts (see 1 Cor. 13; Moro. 7:44-48). We can understand the interrelationship of faith and hope fairly clearly through the paradigm, but where does charity enter in? As I have pondered this, I find a profoundly moving answer-charity enters in at every level, every aspect, every point. The pure love of Christ validates every level of action to make it productive. This seems to be what Paul meant when he said that one can prophesy or give alms or do numerous other things, yet such actions are meaningless if not done because of a love for God and fellowman. Charity is what lights our hope, strengthens our will, deepens our confirmation. It suffers long, endures much, is properly motivated, hopes for all things, and endures all things. I have not shown charity in the paradigm because it would need to be shown everywhere, for it permeates the whole process of faith and salvation. Mormon explained it thus:

"Charity is the pure love of Christ, and it endureth forever; and whoso is found possessed of it at the last day, it shall be well with him. Wherefore, my beloved brethren, pray unto the Father with all the energy of heart, that ye may be filled with this love, which he hath bestowed upon all who are true followers of his Son, Jesus Christ; that ye may become the sons of God; that when he shall appear we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is; that we may have this hope; that we may be purified even as he is pure" (Moro. 7:47-48).


1. Joseph Smith, Lectures on Faith (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1985), 7:7.
2. Vaughn J. Featherstone, "As If They Would Ask Him to Tarry a Little Longer," in Speeches of the Year, 1975 (Provo: Brigham Young University Press, 1976), 375.
3. Smith, Lectures on Faith, 1:13-17.
4. Ibid., 3:2-5.
5. Ibid., 6:7.
6. Ibid., 6:11.